Politics is the arrangement of activities which are related to making political decisions in assemblies, or other groups of individuals, for the purpose of maximizing social capital or status, or both. The field of politics is usually studied by scholars who are interested in social decision making. However, in politics, unlike the natural sciences, there is no absolute principle of cause and effect. There are numerous instances when the outcome of a political event may not have been foreseen at its inception and the blame for this may not lie with the political party, but with the individuals who initiate and conduct political affairs.
The discipline of politics has three major theories: liberalism, conservatism, and democracy. Liberalism is usually regarded as an idealistic political philosophy and the political systems of liberal states are said to be inherently prone towards subsidization and equality. Conservatism, on the other hand, is considered to be the movement toward regulated pluralism, protectionism, and protectionism. The most notable aspect of conservatism is its opposition to democracy, liberalism, and freedom of association.
In order to understand the theoretical foundations of politics, it is necessary to have a good grasp of the key terms involved. Key terms in politics include power, authority, and influence. Power is defined as the capacity to govern, while the influence is defined as societal acceptance. In a polity, the institution of authority is defined by a government and its bureaucracy. Influence is defined as the ability to persuade other people to act as one’s desires.
The major institutions of politics are political parties, administrative authorities, governing councils, central agencies, and other governing structures. Political parties differ in their ideology, philosophy, and structure of units in order to gain support from a specified segment of society. Some parties tend to focus on issues affecting the broad interests of the majority, while others specialize in offering specific solutions to narrow interests. Administrative authorities are responsible for ensuring that the policies of the government follow through with implementation. They also play an important role in creating a climate for consensus-building among the political party membership and society.
Modern Statehood Theory and Policy-Planning Networks: All political parties face three major theoretical frameworks that affect formal politics. These are power relationships, institutional arrangements, and social class and ideologies. Power relationships refers to the relations of rulers and ruled, while institutional arrangements refer to the forms of states established in modern society. Social class identifies who the ruled are, as well as their position in society and the forces that dictate societal dynamics that affect power relationships and institutional arrangements.
Politics and theoria: Politics involves three major aspects: deliberation, authority, and societal. Discussions, which involve both leaders and members, are central to politics. Authority refers to the legal or organizational forms that legitimate particular ends and impose particular duties. Although most individuals have some degree of authority, such as teachers in schools, politicians in government, etc., in informal settings such as family bonds, groups of friends, and sports teams, these are not recognized as legitimate authority structures by most citizens. Finally, social policy refers to the general social structures that shape citizens’ lives and affect political decision making, and these policies are not regulated by laws and rules.